Author Archives: Anatomy Warehouse

About Anatomy Warehouse

Anatomy Warehouse provides anatomy models, anatomical charts, and fitness posters to doctors, hospitals, and medical university students around the world to promote medical education.


How to Perform Brain Surgery: A Guide for Time Travellers

Note: It should go without saying, but Anatomy Warehouse does not endorse the practice of performing brain surgery, unless you are, of course, a trained neurosurgeon. Don’t try this at home (even if you are a neurosurgeon).

This ancient example of trepanation was found in Peru, outside modern day Lima.  (National Museum of Health & Medicine)

This ancient example of trepanation was found in Peru, outside modern day Lima. (National Museum of Health & Medicine)

The history of neuroscience and brain surgery can be traced back thousands of years, all the way to our prehistoric relations. The earliest references to the human brain in written form came from the famed Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a document dating back to the 17th century BC, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that brain surgery was practiced as far back as the late Stone Age. Surgical implements used in early brain operation have been unearthed at one of Europe’s most noted archaeological digs, located in France. Outside of Europe, practice of brain surgery can be traced to pre-Incan civilizations, Mexico, North American native tribes, Africa, and even ancient Tibet. Fascinatingly, primitive examples of brain surgery appear to have had an exceptional success rate, with many patients restored to health.

While we can’t be positive why these early examples of brain surgery were practiced so successfully, the amount of early surgical tools that have been recovered, along with early cave paintings, can give us a solid idea of the most common practice of the time. Used to treat a variety of ailments, including epilepsy, migraines, and a variety of mental disorders, trepanning is performed by drilling or scraping into the human skull to expose the dura mater, the thick outer membrane of the human brain. The implement used to perform this could be a sharpened stone or obsidian, wood, or bronze.

Once the dura mater had been exposed, not much is known about how the treatment was carried out. However, modern medicine offers similar techniques, such as craniotomy, wherein a small flap of bone is removed temporarily to allow surgeons access to the brain. Additionally, fascinating archive video footage from the 1920s offers some insight into how trepanation was performed more recently. The video, while blurry, shows a man with a shaved head having a small hole drilled in his skull, and, once opened, a thin needle is inserted.

From Hieronymus Bosch's "The Extraction of the Stone of Madness."  (c. 1488-1516)

From Hieronymus Bosch’s “The Extraction of the Stone of Madness.” (c. 1488-1516)

The practice of trepanation continued through many pre-modern civilizations. Hippocrates himself gave a set of directions on the procedure, and the Middle Ages saw a surge in its practice as a cure for various ailments. While modern science still uses some similar procedures, the continuing practice of trepanning has been largely dismissed as pseudoscience by today’s medical community. Proponents of the practice say it increases blood flow to the brain and allows for heightened experience of daily life.



Want to learn more? Check out these links from around the web.

#FF: 4 Medical Blogs You Should be Reading

The internet is full of stuff. That’s a fact, proven by science and math, and one we’re all too familiar with. While this can be daunting, it’s also really exciting – Just imagine all the things you haven’t found that exist on the internet! In our quest to curate items of interest to our customers and friends, here’s a list of a few of the medical blogs that we think you should be reading right now.

Written by a board-certified, practicing physician, KevinMD has been dubbed social media’s leading physician voice, for good reason! For a decade, Kevin Pho, MD, has been presenting health and medical content that engages readers. While the blog includes his own perspectives, KevinMD includes contributions from more than one thousand authors, from medical students to specialists, primary care providers to surgeons, and even patients.

Because pieces are contributed from a variety of sources, the tone can vary tremendously from article to article, but all of the articles give exceptional perspectives. Kevin’s pieces, especially, are well written, and give amazing insight into the medical profession from someone who knows what he’s talking about. is a great place to lose several hours reading through the opinions and perspectives of some of the best in the business.

A few popular posts:

The New York Times’ Well

The New York Times is one of the most respected outlets for news in the United States, and their website is home to a variety of sections, including politics, technology, and, of course, the news. But their health blog really shines for its open “Ask Well” function, allowing readers to ask any health or medical question that pops into their minds.

The blog, like KevinMD, includes contributions by a variety of writers, with a focus on news articles as well as opinion pieces, even recipes. Whether you’re interested in reading more about the health benefits of fish or want to learn how to cook in a healthier way, Well has you covered, with new articles several times daily. As a bonus, the photography, especially for food articles, is gorgeous!

Some popular articles:

Musings of a Distractible Mind

Written by a practicing doctor from Georgia, this blog is full of compelling and entertaining entries from Dr. Rob Lamberts. The doctor practices directly for his patients, and has strong opinions about how doctors should be treating their patients.

I think people should expect more from their doctors.  People expect to have to wait when they shouldn’t.  They expect to have to come in to have questions answered, even if they are simple questions.  They expect for care to be complicated when it could be simple.  They expect the doctor to be the center of the health care universe, when they, the patients, should be in that position.

Dr. Lamberts’ blog is a great read, full of posts that will make you laugh, shake your head, or let out a sad sigh – Posts full of feeling and heart! While most of his posts focus on medicine, and his practice, they also are relevant in other ways, with his insights on many facets of life.

Some posts of note:

doctorgrumpyDoctor Grumpy in the House

Dr. Grumpy writes some truly hilarious stuff. Whether writing about his personal experiences with patients, or sharing stories from others, Dr. Grumpy’s excellent blog is a wonderful way to spend some time. Learn about a potential serious side effect of a drug being studied (Spoiler alert: The side effect is death!), read hilarious exchanges between Dr. Grumpy and his patients, and enjoy lovely tales of life. There are also marvelous news tidbits, as the fancy strikes the good Doctor!

Highly recommended – Choosing a handful to share was tough! Simply pop onto his blog and have a field day!

Write a medical blog? Interested in sharing a piece with our readers? Contact us via Facebook!

Photo by Getty Images

Robin Williams and the Specter of Mental Illness

Please note: We are not medical professionals; Please do not take anything contained in our blog as medical advice. If you need help, please contact your physician or other appropriate medical professional.

Over the past several days, the internet has been abuzz with memories of Robin Williams. Comedian, actor of stage and screen, and father, Robin Williams’ forty year career was marked with years of brilliant performances. However, unbeknownst to many of his fans, Mr. Williams suffered greatly at the hands of an invisible enemy – Mental illness, in the form of bipolar disorder.

Van Gogh also suffered from mental illness; Many theorize bipolar disorder.

Van Gogh also suffered from mental illness; Many theorize bipolar disorder.

For many, depression is just a word, with sorrow just a temporary state. For others, depression is all too real, and, too often, misunderstood. However, as Mr. Williams’ death shows, it’s all too easy to appear happy on the surface while suffering deeply underneath. Because mental illness rarely has any sort of outward manifestation, people with mental illness are regularly met with skepticism, even aggression, from even the most well-meaning of people. Additionally, for those who choose to share their experience with mental illness or their feelings, it can be difficult to convey the full meaning of what “I’m depressed” means.

It’s important for appropriate dialogue to happen in the aftermath of tragedies like this one. It’s all too easy to write off suicide as the actions of one person, especially if one doesn’t understand those actions. The first step in any conversation is understanding what it is about.

What is Depression?

Depression can take several forms. Some examples:

  • Major or Clinical depression – This severe form impacts one’s ability to work, sleep, eat… Really, to live. While this can be isolated to a single episode in an individual’s life, more often it occurs several times. It is estimated that approximately 6.7% of American adults suffer from clinical depression, with between 20-25% of adults suffering from an episode of major depression at some point during their lives. This form often occurs in tandem with other psychiatric issues, such as anxiety, and can also be associated with substance abuse.
  • Persistent depressive disorder – This is a depressive episode that lasts 2 years or more, and can fluctuate as far as severity of symptoms. While it can be less severe in terms of its manifestation, it tends to hold on longer, and can occur in an individual with clinical depression as well.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – One of the more common mental disorders, SAD is also known as “seasonal depression.”
  • Bipolar disorder – While bipolar disorder is not purely a depressive condition, it is a combination of elevated periods of happiness, known as manic phases, followed by periods of depression.

Perhaps the most shocking aspect of mental illness is how common it is. The National Institute of Mental Health estimated in 2012 that 16 million adults in the United States experienced a major depressive episode in the past year. That’s just under 7% of all American adults. They also estimated that about 9.5% of the adult U.S. population suffers from some form of mood disorder, with 45% of those cases classified as severe.

Depression can be caused by a variety of factors. Genetics are one potential facet, as are environmental conditions. Traumatic experiences, loss, and stress can also bring on symptoms of depression. At their core, though, depression and other mood disorders are disorders of the brain. MRI technology has shown that the brains of individuals with depression appear differently from those that do not suffer from the disorder.

Symptoms of depression vary, but the most common symptoms include persistent negative feelings, including sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and helplessness. People suffering from depression may seem to have a short fuse, or be disinterested in things they once enjoyed. They may have difficulty making decisions, feel worthless, or their eating habits may change drastically. In some cases, thoughts of suicide may occur, or even attempts.

Allie Brosh's comic informs about the realities of depression, including feelings of emptiness.

Allie Brosh’s comic, Depression Part Two, explores the realities of experiencing depression, including feelings of emptiness and hopelessness.

Artist Allie Brosh, known for her Hyperbole and a Half web comic, has written a particularly compelling and accurate portrayal of depression and how it feels, titled Depression Part Two. While the entire piece is a worthwhile read for those interested in understanding depression, this quote is particularly useful for those interested in understanding how depression feels:

“I remember being endlessly entertained by the adventures of my toys. Some days they died repeated, violent deaths, other days they traveled to space or discussed my swim lessons and how I absolutely should be allowed in the deep end of the pool, especially since I was such a talented doggy-paddler. I didn’t understand why it was fun for me, it just was. But as I grew older, it became harder and harder to access that expansive imaginary space that made my toys fun. I remember looking at them and feeling sort of frustrated and confused that things weren’t the same. I played out all the same story lines that had been fun before, but the meaning had disappeared. Horse’s Big Space Adventure transformed into holding a plastic horse in the air, hoping it would somehow be enjoyable for me. Prehistoric Crazy-Bus Death Ride was just smashing a toy bus full of dinosaurs into the wall while feeling sort of bored and unfulfilled.  I could no longer connect to my toys in a way that allowed me to participate in the experience. Depression feels almost exactly like that, except about everything.”

How to Help

Mental illness is no less a real disease than any other. Clinician Julie Hanks once said “Telling someone struggling with depression to ‘cheer up’ or telling an individual with an anxiety disorder to ‘stop worrying so much’ is like telling a person with diabetes to simply ‘lower your blood sugar level.’” But how do we help? Those living with depression and other mental illnesses cannot and should not be made to shoulder their burden entirely on their own.

In dealing with mental illness, each individual is totally different. Small wonder, as each of us deals with our feelings and lives differently. However, there are a few things that are universal when helping an individual who may be suffering from a depressive episode.

First and foremost, remember that they are suffering from a condition. As in the quote from Ms. Hanks, we don’t tell individuals with diabetes to just get over their blood sugar issues – That would be very silly, indeed!

This Understanding Depression detailed chart includes information about symptoms, treatment, and more.

This Understanding Depression detailed chart includes information about symptoms, treatment, and more.

Secondly, listen and keep an open mind. We all want to help with words, but sometimes the most helpful approach is one without any. Some individuals suffering from mental disorders may not have the opportunity to speak openly about their feelings, and just listening can make a huge difference.

Third, keep in mind a few things not to say! Even those with the best of intentions will sometimes find themselves wanting to tell those suffering from mental illness to “change their attitude” or “just put on a smile,” but these statements can be damaging for those suffering from the disorder.

Finally, never forget that they are the same person they were before the disorder or episode became apparent. Simply offering your support and letting them know that your opinion of them has not changed can be effective.

There are many resources for those who are or have a loved one suffering from mental illness. A few that we found that are noteworthy;

Other Articles from the Web:

This example of Italian style shows the human hair and pearls used to make the Italian Venuses so glamorous.  Photo by Joanna Ebenstein.

The Unsettling Beauty of the Wax Venus : Anatomical Models Through History

A modern anatomical torso, by Axis Scientific

A modern anatomical torso, by Axis Scientific

As modern anatomy enthusiasts, we are familiar with the anatomical torso. With its clear depiction of the organs of the human midsection, anatomical torsos make great study and patient education aids. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, another anatomical model was a much more common sight – The Anatomical Venus.

Made of wax, and frequently depicted with real human hair, elaborate jewelry, and even makeup, these anatomical figures were created as a response to the difficulty of obtaining cadavers. On top of that, cadavers were not well preserved at that time, and the dissection of these remains was rather disgusting. While preservation techniques were improving by the 17th century, anatomists and scientists looked for an alternative means of presenting the anatomy of the human body in a clear way. At the end of the 17th century, a Sicilian artist and French surgeon collaborated on the creation of the first realistic anatomical model made of wax. The model was deemed a success, thanks to wax’s ability to hold form and color while not breaking down as quickly as other materials.

This blend of artistry and science spread across Europe, with distinct regional styles developing. The two most notable styles are the Italian and English. As is traditional with classic Italian art, the style that emerged from Florence displayed a sense of physical beauty, even eroticism, almost as if they were live, glamorous women, who just happened to have their organs exposed. These figures were designed with an “ideal beauty” in mind, with one famed museum director commenting that the models needed to be perfect and free of defect.

In comparison, the models created in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands appeared as if they were cadavers, with crude, lifeless pallor, and grotesque expression. While the Italian style seemed to balance beauty with anatomical detail, the English models were totally unadorned and practical.

This comparison of the English and Italian styles shows the stark contrast between them. A) Italian, 'La Specola' workshop, late 18th/early 19th century. B) English, Joseph Towne, circa 1827-79.

This comparison of the English and Italian styles shows the stark contrast between them. A) Italian, ‘La Specola’ workshop, late 18th/early 19th century. B) English, Joseph Towne, circa 1827-79.

One of the most interesting aspects of the Anatomical Venus was how readily available they were to the public. Patrons were fascinated by these models, and even Victorian women were permitted to visit the anatomical museums of the time. While they were admitted separately from gentlemen, women in Victorian England were encouraged to visit the museums and learn anatomy both to better take care of themselves and their families. The practice was, however, somewhat scandalous, with some arguing that anatomy was too indelicate for respectable women.

La Venerina, the Little Venus, by Clemente Susini.

La Venerina, the Little Venus, by Clemente Susini.

Among the most famous artists to create these Anatomical Venuses was Clemente Susini, an Italian sculptor who worked during the late 18th century. His work brought acclaim for its anatomical accuracy, as well as its incredible beauty. Many of his works are still visible at the Italian Museum of Zoology and Natural History, La Specola, in Florence, which houses more than 1400 anatomical wax models. Another of his more famous works is the Venerina, visible at the Museo di Palazzo Poggi in Bologna.

La Specola, Florence.

La Specola, Florence.

Interested in learning more about these gorgeous yet macabre anatomical models? Check out some of these links from around the web with more images and more information.


Featured photo by Joanna Ebenstein, The Secret Museum.

Anatomy Resources: GetBodySmart

Welcome back to Anatomy Warehouse’s blog series on the topic of anatomy study aids.  Today, we’re pleased to introduce a Warehouse fan favorite,  Depending on your needs, Get Body Smart might just be the missing piece in your study!

Courtesy of

Courtesy of

Get Body Smart was developed over time by an educator with over 20 years of teaching experience at university level, Mr. Scott Sheffield.  The site was created to give students, teachers, and the intellectually and scientifically curious a convenient and free source for information about the human body and its amazing physiology. Mr. Sheffield has been running the site for 14 years, and he is constantly updating the site, making it an indispensable resource for anyone looking to study human anatomy.

The site is fully animated, and works a lot like an interactive book!  The main page presents a variety of topics on the right side, including an overview, in depth sections about the systems of the body, and a section of quizzes for those looking to test their skills.  When you choose a section, the page opens up to a variety of tutorials, as well as relevant quizzes.

The Muscular System - Courtesy of

The Muscular System – Courtesy of

Each tutorial covers a selection of information.  In the example above, we can see that the muscles of the arm, forearm, shoulder, and much more are explored individually, allowing visitors to brush up on specific areas of the body, muscle groups, and even physiology of systems.

Another wonderful feature of GetBodySmart is the selection of physiology animations which can be played on tablets and smartphones through the use of an easy to install app.  This allows students to take their study on the go, and can be used on both Android and iDevices.

We’re always excited to see the new features of GetBodySmart, and can’t wait to see what’s next from Mr. Sheffield.  Check out this site for anatomy study and review!

Looking for past entries in the Anatomy Resources series?

Introducing Axis Scientific – Quality Anatomy Models at a Great Price

We tend to keep our blog entries focused more on information than advertising – After all, we’re here to help educate! However, we’re extremely excited to introduce our new line of anatomical models, exclusive to Anatomy Warehouse. Axis Scientific was designed for educators, students, and professionals, with a strong focus on combining quality with cost. We’re extremely proud of the results!

The Axis Scientific Painted Skeleton, Exclusively from Anatomy Warehouse

The Axis Scientific Painted Skeleton, Exclusively from Anatomy Warehouse

One of the early stand-outs in the collection has been our Axis Scientific Painted Skeleton. This life sized skeleton is a beautiful addition to any classroom or medical facility, with an incredible balance of cost and detail. A feature that’s been popular with customers is the nearly invisible hardware on the skull, allowing for an uninterrupted study of the cranium. The calvarium attaches with magnets, rather than the standard hooks found on other skeletons and anatomy models. This is not only more attractive, but more practical as well! Broken skull hooks have been a common concern among our customers for years, and we’re very happy with this solution. The skeleton includes an easy to assemble stand, for attractive display.

Axis Scientific's 16 part Dual Sex Mini Torso, only at Anatomy Warehouse

Axis Scientific’s 16 part Dual Sex Mini Torso, only at Anatomy Warehouse

A favorite among our staff is the Axis Scientific 16-part Dual Sex Mini Torso, a 17” anatomical torso with interchangeable genitalia. We love this torso because of the amount of detail packed into its tiny design! One of our favorite features is the way the torso fits together. Rather than being primarily held together with pegs, as most big torsos are, this torso is held together mostly with a combination of magnets and hooks. The parts fit together easily – Even an early anatomy student will be able to put this together! It’s also a great price, making it a no-brainer for anyone looking to study the internal organs of the human body.

We’re so proud of the Axis line that we want to be sure everyone has a shot at their own Axis model. To this end, we’re offering a 15% off discount on the entire Axis Scientific line for a limited time. Now through 6/27/2014, customers can score this extra discount (once only!) by using promo code AXISLAUNCH during checkout.  New, awesome anatomy models can be yours, at a lower cost than you thought possible!

Tried Axis already? Tells us what you think in the comments for a shot at fame, glory, and maybe, just maybe, something special from your Anatomy Warehouse friends.

Anatomy Resources:

Muscular System Jigsaw from

Continuing our series of anatomical study aids, we’re excited to introduce, a site full of exciting games to help students of all levels study the human body and its systems.

Created by a science and physical education teacher in Australia, Ben Crossett, Anatomy Arcade offers games of all sorts, including word games, matching games, and the site’s “signature” games, like Whack-a-Bone and Poke-a-Muscle. With the range of game styles presented, it’s easy for any student to find a great study asset that is perfect for their learning style.

Whack-a-Bone, website version.

Whack-a-Bone, website version.

The site also includes a collection of helpful videos, from basic to advanced, that Mr. Crossett recommends for students of anatomy and physiology. A few of the videos in the library are broken links, but the collection is extremely convenient for students and educators alike. We’re especially excited by the collection of Dr. Fabian’s Human Anatomy Lectures, videos that are suitable for advanced students to study and learn from. We even spotted a few of our products in Dr. Fabian’s videos, including the Functional Shoulder Joint model from 3B Scientific.

Bacteria Tower Defence

Bacteria Tower Defence

Another exciting treat from AnatomyArcade is the Whack-a-Bone iPad edition, a reasonably priced app that’s perfect for students of the skeletal system of all ages. The available reviews on the Apple store seem very positive, as well, making this a very exciting port from site to app.

Finally, Mr. Crossett has also developed a series of “Just for Fun” games, including Bacteria Tower Defence, a favorite around the office.

We highly recommend checking out this excellent site. Whether you’re just starting on your anatomical studies or are further along, you’re sure to find a game that is just right for you.

Miss the first article in our resources series? Check out Anatomy Resources:

Anatomy Resources:

Plate image from Atlas of Human Anatomy, courtesy of

Plate image from Atlas of Human Anatomy, courtesy of

Beginning our series about online resources for medical students, we’d like to introduce a wonderful site that we’ve been a fan of for years. Anatomy Atlases is run by two doctors, Dr. Michael D’Alessandro and Dr. Ronald Bergman. The website itself acts as an online library of anatomical information, both historical and current. The site’s purpose is to provide curated anatomical content to educate patients, healthcare providers, and students for free.

At time of this writing, six textbooks and atlases are available through the site, including a fascinating collection of Human Anatomy in Cross Section, as well as Dr. Bergman’s translation of Dr. Carl Ernest Bock’s Atlas of Human Anatomy, originally published in 1841.

From Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section, courtesy of

Section of the head from Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section. Courtesy of

One of the most compelling aspects of the site is how it integrates modern anatomical science and much older classical medical illustration and information. While the Atlas of Human Anatomy was written over 100 years ago, its illustrations offer a gorgeous view of human anatomy, and the historical content of the book is fascinating to read. Conversely, the Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section is much more recent, with its last revision in 2004, and shows actual segments of human anatomy, giving a graphic and clear addition to anatomical study.

Another interesting component of the site is the Anatomy of First Aid, a first aid manual that was prepared for the United States Navy. It is designed to be anatomically and medically correct, and offers unique situations where these techniques may be used.

Overall, we love the variety of information present on the site. Additionally, it appears to receive regular updates, and, while some of the information is older, it is clearly a well-maintained and useful collection of information for students and the curious.

5 Quick and Easy Ways to Relieve Stress

“In the midst of movement and chaos, keep stillness inside of you.” – Deepak Chopra

Our last blog addressed the dangers of stress to your health, and briefly touched on the importance of exercise to individual well-being. We received notes from friends afterwards, asking about other ways to relieve stress in our daily lives, so we compiled this quick “cheat sheet” for some easy ways to help reduce your stress.

  1. Chew gum. This may seem like a strange tip, but stress can manifest in the jaw – Just consider how often angry people clench their jaws! Chewing gum loosens up the muscles in this area. As a bonus, peppermint and spearmint are used in aromatherapy to help relieve stress.
  2. Light a scented candle. We mentioned aromatherapy, but it’s not just the mint family that can help relieve stress. Lavender, ylang-ylang, and sandalwood are just a few smells that encourage relaxation and tension relief. Incense is also a great option.
  3. Try this easy breathing exercise to relax.

    Try this easy breathing exercise to relax.

    Deep breaths! Breathing techniques are a wonderful way to decompress. Even just allowing yourself a few good, deep breaths can help calm your nerves.

  4. Eat something. Bananas, chocolate, and nuts are a few great options for stress relief. Looking for other great options? We like this short list from Buzzfeed.
  5. Just take a few minutes to yourself. Especially at work, a break is vital to staying productive and happy during the day. A few ideas for ways to use your break; Meditate, read an uplifting article or story on the internet, or just look at pictures of cats being cats. We’ve also included some options in our links below.

Take some time out of your day today to relax!

Further Reading:

Stress vs. Your Body

This infographic displays several shocking facts about stress in our daily lives.  Click for the full graphic.

This infographic displays several shocking facts about stress in our daily lives. Click for the full graphic.

One of the most common complaints among individuals is stress. In a 2013 study by the American Psychological Association, 42% of individuals surveyed reported that their stress levels have increased over the previous 5 years, while 36% say their stress has stayed the same. Stress at work, stress at school, stress at home – It’s everywhere, and it’s impacting our lives in a multitude of ways. Stressed workers perform less efficiently. Individuals who experience chronic stress in their daily lives report sleep problems, interpersonal issues, and physical symptoms like fatigue and headaches.

These physical symptoms just scratch the surface, however. A recent study by the Society of Biological Psychiatry has shown that stress and the resulting anger, anxiety, and depression can affect the heart and its healthy function. Stress can also lead to digestive issues, including IBS, as well as increased weight gain. Stress has been shown to have a direct correlation to decreased energy and mood, dizziness, panic and irritability – The list goes on, and impacts the bulk of Americans on a daily basis.

Moreover, individuals widely report they are not managing their stress, in spite of a large percentage of individuals saying they want to reduce their overall stress levels. What is the best way to manage stress? The Mayo Clinic recommends physical activity, including yoga and tai chi, to help reduce stress, as well as getting enough sleep and eating a balanced diet. Other techniques suggested include meditation, relaxation techniques, avoiding tobacco and reducing caffeine intake. Alcohol should also be imbibed only in moderation.

Overwhelmingly, medical professionals recommend regular exercise to help reduce stress and its effects, but it can have other amazing effects as well, including improved sleep, mood, and self-confidence. It can help reduce your risk of illnesses like heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and even cancer, as well as reduce the risk of an early death by up to 30%. Seems like a great argument for breaking out the walking shoes, or hopping on a bike!