The Anatomical Development of Type 1 Diabetes

According to American Diabetes Association, nearly 26 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes and 5% of people with diabetes have type 1, which is less common but much more serious than Type 2 diabetes. People who get the Type 1 diabetes produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to convey sugar to enter cells to produce energy.  If the sugar stays in the blood at a high level, it could damage eyes, kidneys, nerves, and the hearts [3]. 40% of young people with diabetes are at risk of heart and kidney disease. Recently, the researchers could identify young people with type 1 diabetes at risk of heart and kidney disease by using a simple urine test, which may help offer treatment early and prevent them happening.

But there is exciting news from CNN! Type 1 diabetics could maintain normal glucose levels long-term through transplantation of the Islet cells, which could produce the insulin and regulate the glucose levels. It is waiting for approve of the Food and Drug Administration. But it cannot help with Type 2 diabetes, which occurs due to insulin resistance [1]. Most of Type 1 diabetics are diagnosed from infancy to the late 30s.

Knowing the symptoms of Type 1 diabetics could be important:

• Extreme thirst, especially for sweet, cold drinks

• Frequent urination

• Drowsiness or lethargy

• Increased appetite

• Sudden weight loss

• Sudden vision changes

• Sugar in the urine

• Fruity odor on the breath

• Heavy or labored breathing

• Stupor or unconsciousness

• Nausea and vomiting (acute symptoms)

If you have any signs from above, you should call a doctor immediately. Most of the diabetics begins in childhood and use insulin injections to control the diabetes, and it could become fatal quickly if not be controlled well [2]. There is more risk for low blood sugar because intensive insulin therapy. While Type 1 diabetes is not preventable, the usual complication of diabetic neuropathy can be prevent, which is usually happen at least 10 years after the diabetes is diagnosed. The best ways are to keep the blood sugar under control and assess the nerve function regularly [4].


[1] Cells offer hope for Type 1 diabetes, CNN news.

[2] More Ways to Cope With Type 1 Diabetes, The New York Times.

[3] What is Type 1 Diabetes? , Diabetes Research Institute Foundation.

[4] How to Control Diabetic Neuropathy, Everyday Health.

How the anatomy model would help in physical therapy

Shoulder Joint Anatomy Model With RotatorThe most common medical diagnosis for shoulder problems are rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, tendinitis, bursitis and adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) [1]. Proper physical therapy could help you recovery quickly with less pain and get back to normal life. Recently, Mariah Carey recovered from the shoulder injury through three month’s physical therapy. Shawnna Shula, the Fife High School volleyball coach, also got relieved from the shoulder surgery after intense physical therapy. Also, there is a new approach for shoulder replacement, which would not cut the subscapularis – a rotator cuff tendon in the front of the shoulder – and reflected to allow exposure to the joint as a typical shoulder replacement [2]. This technology would save time, eliminates risk of subscapularis insufficiency and let patients quickly return to do sports. This shoulder joint model shows the musculature of the rotator cuff, which could be detached for a clearer understanding of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder disorders are very common in individuals of all ages. The shoulder is vulnerable to injury because of frequently mobility in different directions.  It could become worse and worse when most of people choose to endure the pain. Most of people start to pay attention only until it become serious. Do you still suffer from the shoulder injuries? Do you feel pain when trying to lift something? Is the pain influence your work and mood? If so, let us help you understand your condition!Anatomy And Injuries Of The Shoulder Anatomical Chart

The more you understand the structure of muscles and joints, the better you could receive from the proper treatment. The knowledge could help you continue the treatment by yourself and actively cooperate with the doctors for treatment. This chart would give you a wealth of information of the functional anatomy of the shoulder. Fitness exercise could strength the shoulder muscles. But Remember warm up the muscles – Five to ten minutes activities, such as jogging or walking could prevent you from hurting the muscles.


[1] “Physical Therapists provide relief from your shoulder dysfunction” Newspapers.

[2] “New approach for shoulder replacement” Newspapers.

10 Outstanding Women in Medicine and Physiology

Traditionally, women have been minorities in the fields of Medicine and Human Anatomy/Physiology, but these female role models have broken the stereotypes. Many of them faced obstacles in medical education due to their gender, and some further faced discrimination due to their religious background. Some of them did not receive full credit for their scientific achievements, and their male colleagues ended up gaining the fame they deserved. Regardless, we’d like to invite you to take a moment to honor these women who helped advance medicine to new heights, and encourage young women with an interest in science to pursue similar goals.

Though Watson and Crick are the first scientists associated with DNA molecular research, it was Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) who paved the way for that achievement. Rosalind developed x-ray diffraction techniques that provided vital clues to the structure of DNA. Watson and Crick later used some of her research to help prove the double helix structure of DNA, one of the most noteworthy achievements in medical science in the 20th century. Read moreCasualty Simulation Patient Care Training Model EMT

We now understand more about healing bone fractures thanks to Anita B Roberts (1942-2006), an American molecular biologist. Anita’s research focused on the protein TGF-β. She extracted this protein from human placenta tissue as well as blood platelets, and compared them with kidney tissue from cows to learn about growth factors that help heal our wounds. Anita also helped discover that this protein can encourage the growth of some advanced cancers such as of the breast and lung, while blocking the growth of many other cancers. Read more

If you know a patient with leukemia or another medical condition, thank Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999), who invented several drugs to fight infections. She developed zovirax to fight herpes infections, zyloprim to battle gout, and purinethol, one of the first drugs to combat against leukemia. Before her invention of Imuran, which prevents a human’s immune system from battling foreign tissues, kidney transplants exchanged between non-family members were seldom successful. Read more

GeneticMedical anatomy education chart of leukemia translocation of leukemia was discovered by medical doctor Janet Rowley (1925-). Janet studied chromosomes of leukemia patients, and noticed how the genetic materials exchanges between chromosomes to advance leukemia. These findings were applied to other diseases that greatly expanded medical understanding of genetic communication in the human body. Read more

One of the recipients of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine was Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-), who co-discovered a protein called the NGF, the nerve growth factor. The NGF is stimulates nerve tissue to promotes growth among developing cells. The implications of this research led to a better anatomical understanding of cell/organ growth, which in turn helped medical scientists understand various forms of cancer and neurological conditions such as Parkinson ’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Read more

Progress on the study of protein folding was and is still being achieved by Susan Lindquist (1949-), a molecular biologist. Susan’s studies demonstrated that protein conformations. Using yeast models, she and her colleagues have observed the mechanism of a protein-only inheritance. Furthermore, she has contributed to a greater understanding of amyloid fiber formation. Read more

The term “organizer” in embryology comes from Hilde Mangold (1898-1924). Hilde anatomical development of embryo for medical understandingstudied physiology of amphibians, and manipulated hundreds of embryos to discover that when she transplanted embryos of two species of amphibians, some of her test subjects developed second heads, spinals cords, and even brains! Read more

The study of a breast and ovarian cancer gene on chromosome 17q21, carried out by Mary-Claire King (1946-), led to a greater understanding of various other genetic diseases in the medical community. She has subsequently used complex experimental and bioinformatics genomic tools to aid the study of inherited medical conditions. Read more

Countless newborn lives are saved day in and day out thanks to physician Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), who had developed the Apgar score. This checks a newborn baby’s respiration, muscle tone, reflexes, and pulse, thereby ensuring its health efficiently. Before this invention, birth complications often killed or enfeebled babies. She was also the first female board certified anesthesiologist in medical history. Read more

Last but not least, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin was a crystallographer who discovered the structure of insulin, vitamin B12, and the especially complicated structure of penicillin. Her medical discovery helped scientists develop semisynthetic penicillins that impeded the growth of various bacteria, thereby saving countless lives. She accomplished all this despite being diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at age 24. Read more

5 Geeky Gifts for Medical Students and Anatomy Enthusiasts

Gift giving can be hard, especially for the picky people on your list. You might know a biologist that wants a gift as clever as them, or an aspiring doctor who knows they’re too good for an average, generic gift. Impress them with an anatomically accurate gift! Here are some of the best picks from Anatomy Warehouse that will surely give any fan of science a thrill during the holidays.

Anatomical Bones SocksBones Socks

A geeky gift that’s sure to win the heart of your anatomy student! Bones socks are labeled, highly detailed, anatomically accurate, and perfect for anyone with adult-sized feet. Flip the soles of your foot and you can learn a little reflexology!

Magic Thinking CapBrain Anatomy Cap

What does your medical fanatic best friend want? Think, think hard…and get this magic thinking cap, featuring the anatomy of the human brain! This brain cap will fit most adult heads, and will prove how brainy the recipient truly is!

anatomy key ring spine vertebral column


Spine Key Ring

This miniature spine key ring is under $5, and is the perfect stocking stuffer for anyone who appreciates the human skeleton anatomy! Medical professionals have called this an excellent on-the-spot teaching tool when students ask questions about the vertebral column. And it’s sure to be a conversation starter no matter who you run into!

Skeleton System Clipboard

Another great anatomical product that your loved one can carry with them wherever they go is this clipboard, with both sides showing a detailed, labeled, and anatomical accurate human skeleton. Students would especially love this because even when they’re not in study mode, this helps them review skeleton anatomy and be ready for tests. And it’ll be all thanks to you! And if skeletons aren’t your thing, try the Muscular System Clipboard instead.

human head anatomy model tedcoHuman Head Anatomy Model

This little man is perfect for any medical educator or student’s desk, for quick reference as well as inspiration. He comes with 14 detachable parts, an illustrated assembly guide with anatomical information to enhance your medical education. It can also inspire the curiosity of anyone who comes to your desk!



So there you have it: great gift ideas that will excite any professional or soon-to-be professional in the healthcare arena. For more great anatomical picks, browse through our Anatomy Gifts section. Through December 20, 2012, you can get 20% off all the items in this category with the promo code listed on our Facebook page.

Happy Holidays!

The Anatomical Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Children

Studies released in the last few months have shown that diabetes is increasing among children, both in the United States and worldwide. What’s even more shocking is that Type 2 diabetes among children has dramatically increased. Until recently, only about 2% of diabetes diagnoses in children were for Type 2 diabetes mellitus[1]. Now, some medical statistics suggest about 50% of the new cases of diabetes in children are Type 2.

Medical researchers are still working to find out the causes behind this recent epidemic. Type 2 diabetes can go undetected for years in some children, possibly because it was once so rare. However, studies have pointed to some patterns in child development they notice in Type 2 diabetes patients ages 10-19. They include:

Human anatomy poster of type 2 diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes Anatomical Chart

-Insulin resistance: At onset, the body might recognize the increase in blood sugar and the need to control it by increasing insulin production[2]. Over time, though, the body becomes insulin resistant. Endocrinologists are still trying to understand the reasons, but one may be due to the onset of puberty. As growth hormones increase, youth with a predisposition to diabetes show greater insulin resistance[1].

-Weight problems: About 85% of children diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in recent years are also overweight or obese[1].

-Skin problems: Many new child patients of Type 2 diabetes showed signs of acanthosis nigricans, when dark, thick skin develops around the patient’s neck.

-Women’s health: Young women with Type 2 diabetes tended to have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), which is an endocrine system medical condition affecting ovulation among other things. Infrequent periods or amenorrhea may also be present, although this may be as a result of being overweight. Other medical problems associated with young women with Type 2 diabetes include vaginal yeast infection, increased acne and excess hair[2].

-Ketoacidosis: Some child patients of Type 2 diabetes face this complication in their blood[1]. When insulin deficiency is inherent in the human body, the body instead burns fatty acids, building up the level of acid in the human blood and causing sickness.

-Cardiovascular complications: Children with Type 2 diabetes may exhibit abnormal cholesterol levels or high blood pressure. As with diabetes in adult patients, children with Type 2 have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

-Eye health: A symptom reported in youth with Type 2 includes blurred vision[2]. Although this rarely affects Type 2 patients as children, in the long run, Type 2 diabetes has severe implications for eye problems. Chronic high blood sugar over the years can lead to bleeding of the eye, vision loss, or glaucoma.

-Other medical conditions: Hypertension is another disorder associated with Type 2

Type 2 Diabetes Anatomy Model from GPI anatomicals

diabetes mellitus in kids. Other anatomical conditions include: glycosuria (expulsion of glucose through the urine), dislipidemia (lipid disorders)[1], frequent infections, and slow healing of wounds and sores[2].

Implications in Medical Education

The alarming rate of Type 2 diabetes in children in the present day should induce increased education of controlling this medical condition, both in terms of patient education and healthcare educations of medical students and nursing students.

Since Metformin, the drug typically used to control Type 2 diabetes in adults, has not been shown to work well in child patients to accomplish glycemic control[3], pediatricians and other healthcare professionals need to promote exercise, and specific types of exercise, to diabetic children. Educators need to act as a model and promote healthier eating choices, so that the developing bodies do not have to work as hard at controlling blood sugar.

In medical schools and nursing schools, the increase in Type 2 diabetes among young people means that there needs to be a greater awareness of changes in endocrinology that may lead to early onset of Type 2 diabetes. Additionally, there needs to be more time devoted to educating the causes of Type 2 diabetes, including weight management and nutrition.

[1]Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents.” American Diabetes Association

[2]Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents.” National Diabetes Education Program

Changes in Childbirth due to Changes in Anatomy

Times have changed, and likewise, pregnancy and childbirth have as well. While it’s true that better technology and improved prenatal care and education are contributing to these differences, there’s more to it than that. For one thing, women have changed anatomically over the last century, and that translated into pregnancy and labor being a little different than it was back in the day. Here are some of the major changes in pregnancy and labor:

-Pregnant women spend more hours in labor now than they did childbirth anatomy model 3B50 years ago.A study from earlier this year showed that the first stage of pregnancy takes 2.6 hours longer for first-time mothers in the last few years than it did in the 60s. Medical researchers have noticed that the average body mass of a woman prior to pregnancy has gone up in the last 50 years, from a BMI of 23 to a BMI of 24.9. Women are also 4 years older when giving labor now as opposed to the 1960s. As the body weight of a pre-pregnant woman has gone up, so too has the body mass of a pregnant woman, and these anatomical changes may be contributing to the longer hours in labor1.

-Cesarean sections are becoming increasingly more common. In 2009, for instance, 32.9% of all births in the USA were delivered through C-section. As women are spending more hours in labor than they had been previously, there are also certain risks tied to a prolonged labor process, such as more pain. Cesarean births help reduce those risks. Another benefit of Cesarean sections is that in most cases, women can schedule when to have their births via this method. With busier lifestyles, the ability to have scheduled, planned births offer convenience to the modern mother, and this may be part of the reason why Cesarean sections are becoming more common in America2.

-Diet is now believed to be good during pregnancy. A study published last May suggested that pregnant women who watch their caloric intake are more likely to have healthier babies, and less likely to have pre-eclampsia, a condition that may lead to gestational diabetes, premature birth, and for the mother, high blood pressure or hypertension. Moderately intense exercise has also been found to benefit expectant mothers. Of course, pregnant women or women trying to conceive should consult their obstetrician/gynecologist for the best diet and exercise during their nine months3.

Pregnancy and Birth Anatomical ChartThe big picture. It is important to note the changes in pregnancy and labor over the years among women, and apply it to medical education procedures. Since weight seems to be a bigger issue in women’s health during pregnancy, medical professionals should be better trained and encouraged to discuss weight, diet, and exercise with pregnant women and women trying to conceive. In medical universities, a higher emphasis should be placed than previously in performing Cesarean section births. And of course, more medical research should be conducted on these obstetrical topics, including characteristics and pain management for women who face labor for longer hours. As women’s health and anatomy continue to change, medical education to prepare practitioners for labor and delivery ought to change as well.

1. Study: Labor Longer for Pregnant Women Now than 50 Years Ago
2. Are Court-Ordered Cesarean Sections Ethical?
3. Study finds losing weight benefits mother and child, overturning decades of advice

Enter Anatomy Warehouse’s Facebook Giveaway!

Thank you for helping us reach 1,000 likes on Anatomy Warehouse’s Facebook page! As a token of appreciation, we’re giving away a FREE anatomy model, if you answer a simple question.

The question is: How would you use an anatomy model?

All you have to do is comment below the image on our Facebook page about the giveaway, with an answer to the question above, and you’re automatically entered! No purchase is necessary. Share our contest with friends and family so they also have a chance to win!

Here are other rules you need to know about our Anatomy Warehouse Facebook giveaway:

  • Length: This contest will run for 14 days between Wednesday, July 11 and Wednesday, July 25, 2012. We must get at least 25 comments for the prize to be awarded.
  • Entry: No purchase is necessary to enter. Participants need to be a fan of our Facebook page to qualify. Participants are welcome to answer the question as many times as they would like. However, chances of winning only increase if: (a) Participants share contest on Facebook AND/OR (b) Participants comment on other Anatomy Warehouse posts on Facebook during the week.
  • Announcement of Winner: Winner will be selected and announced on Facebook by July 27, 2012. Winner will then choose a prize. Winner can indicate their shipping address, e-mail, and phone number either through a private Facebook message, or by e-mailing
  • Prizes:Winner will select a prize from ONE of the following:
    • 4 Piece Artery Anatomy Model

      Anatomy Warehouse 4 Piece Artery Anatomy Model

      4 Piece Artery Anatomy Model

    • Stomach With Ulcers Anatomy Model

      Anatomy Warehouse Stomach With Ulcers Anatomy Model GPI

      Stomach With Ulcers Anatomy Model

    • Acne Skin Anatomy Model

      Anatomy Warehouse Acne Skin Anatomy Model GPI

      Acne Skin Anatomy Model

    • Half Brain Sensory And Motor Areas Anatomy Model

      Anatomy Warehouse Half Brain Sensory And Motor Areas Anatomy Model GPI

      Half Brain Sensory And Motor Areas Anatomy Model

    • Diseased Teeth And Gums Anatomy Model

      Anatomy Warehouse Diseased Teeth And Gums Anatomy Model GPI

      Diseased Teeth And Gums Anatomy Model

Questions? Please contact us at or call us at (312) 281-9925. Thanks again for liking our Facebook page, and good luck!

6 Favors You Can Do for Your Amazing Brain

We don’t need to tell you over and over again the keys to a healthy lifestyle. You already know that eating lots of fruits and vegetables, exercising a couple times a week, sleeping good hours and stressing less are going to help you go far in life. In the case of your amazing brain, these healthy practices will certainly be a favor for the most important body part in the human anatomy:

The brain anatomy and how exercise helps to strengthen it

But what if you want to go beyond the basics? Wouldn’t you like to do as much as you can to preserve the condition of your brain’s health for the rest of your life? Here is what we’ve learned from medical research that may help your brain’s anatomy:

To learn more about your amazing brain, see our brain anatomy models and medical charts! They’re an extra 10% off until March 18th, when you enter code BRAIN10 at checkout.

Brain medical education products at Anatomy Warehouse

Free Gift for all Anatomy Warehouse customers!

contest sweepstakes giveaway facebook anatomy warehouse

This month at Anatomy Warehouse, we’re sending our customers a FREE surprise gift. You’ve liked our products, and now, let us reward you for it!

To claim your free gift, we’d like you to follow these instructions:

1. Go to our wall on our Facebook page, and write about a product you bought from us. Tell us how you use it, and why you like it.

2. Look for the product you bought on our website,, and share the link to the product in your Facebook wall post.

3. Find the order confirmation e-mail sent to you by when you originally purchased your item, and let them know you want a free gift.

4. Sit back and wait for your free gift to arrive in the mail!

If you have any questions about our Facebook giveaway, you can respond to this blog post, e-mail us at, call us at (312) 281-9925, or post a question on our Facebook wall.


Which spine anatomical model is right for you?

Spine anatomy models are among our most popular products at Anatomy Warehouse. Thus, we often get questions from our customers about the difference between the budget and classic spines we have. Of course, all the spine models are great, and we recommend every one of them, but you should read on to figure out which one is best for YOUR needs.

spine anatomy modelAdvantages of the classic spine anatomy models (AW-58 and AW-59 series):
·    Manufactured in Germany using the best medical technology
·    Created by 3B Scientific
·    Durable and lightweight
·    Greater level of detail
·    All the spines are made from a mold cast from an actual human specimen, so that no detail is lost in the manufacturing process
·    Excellent for medical universities
·    Comes with 3 year warranty; the lifetime flexible spine models has a lifetime warranty
·    Since you spend over $100 on any model, you can get free shipping if you use the promo code listed *here*
·    Varieties:
o    Didactic Flexible Spine Anatomy Model
o    Painted Classic Flexible Spine Anatomy Model With Femur Heads 
o    Classic Flexible Spine Anatomy Model With Female Pelvis
o    Classic Flexible Spine Anatomy Model


Anatomy Warehouse budget spine modelAdvantages of the budget anatomical model:
·    Low priced
·    Great for science classes in elementary and high schools
·    Realistic for the medical student on a budget
·    Comes with its own stand
·    Sufficient for most patient consultations
·    Varieties: Budget Vertebral Column Anatomy Model With Stand, Budget Muscle Spine Anatomy Model with Disorders on Stand

Advantages of both spine models:
·    Anatomically accurate
·    Composed of plastic, with a copper rod running through the inside to maintain its form
·    Same size
·    Includes a herniated disk in the 3rd-4th lumbar
·    Fully functional; all of these models can be twisted

We hope this gives you a better idea of what you’re getting when you order a spine model. If you would like to know more information about these anatomy models or any of our other products at Anatomy Warehouse, please contact or call us toll free, 1-800-422-1134.